First, high-purity polysilicon is melted in a quartz crucible. Dopant impurity atoms will be added to the molten silicon to dope the silicon. Then a seed crystal is dipped into the molten silicon. After the solution around the seed cool off, the silicon crystal will attach to the seed crystal. The seed crystal’s rod is slowly pulled upwards and rotated simultaneously. By precisely controlling the temperature gradients, rate of pulling and speed of rotation, it is possible to extract an intact, single-crystal, cylindrical ingot from the melt


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